Integrated Biosignal Analysis to Provide Biomarkers for Recognizing Time Perception Difficulties

Eyad Talal Attar

DOI: 10.4103/jmss.jmss_24_22


Background: Time perception refers to the capability to recognize the passage of time. The cerebellum is located at the back of the brain, underlying the occipital and temporal lobes. Dyschronometria is a cerebellar dysfunction, in which a person cannot precisely estimate the amount of time that has passed. Cardiac indicators such as heart rate (HR) variability have been associated with mental function in healthy individuals. Moreover, time perception has been previously studied concerning cardiac signs. Human time perception is influenced by various factors such as attention and drowsiness. An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a suitable modality for evaluating cortical reactions due to its affordability and usefulness. Because EEG has a high sequential outcome, it offers valuable data to explore variability in psychological situations. An electrocardiogram (ECG) records electrical signals from the heart to examine various heart conditions. The electromyography (EMG) technique detects electrical impulses produced by muscles. Methods: EEG, ECG, and EMG are integrated during time perception. This study evaluated the human body’s time perception through the neurological, cardiovascular, and muscular systems using a simple neurofeedback exercise after time perception tasks. The three biosignals which are EEG, ECG, and EMG were investigated to use them as biomarkers for recognizing time perception difficulty as the main goal of the study. Five healthy college students with no health issues participated, and their EEG, ECG, and EMG were recorded while relaxing and performing a time wall estimation task and neurofeedback training. Previous research has shown the relationship between EEG frequency bands and the frontal center during time perception. Investigating the connection between ECG, EEG, and EMG under time perception conditions is significant. Results: The results show that ECG (HR), EEG (Delta wave), and EMG (root mean square) are critical features in time perception difficulties. Conclusion: The ability and outcomes of multiple biomarkers might allow for improved diagnosis and monitoring of the progress of any treatment applications such as biofeedback training. Furthermore, those biomarkers could be used as useful for evaluating and treating dyschronometria.


Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, electromyography, time perception

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ISSN : 2228-7477