Alignment of Noncoding Ribonucleic Acids with Pseudoknots Using Context-Sensitive Hidden Markov Model

Nayyer Mostaghim Bakhshayesh, Mousa Shamsi, Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi, Hossein Ebrahimnezhad

DOI: 10.4103/jmss.JMSS_11_19

Abstract


Up to now, various signal processing techniques have been used to predict protein-coding genes that are unsuitable for predicting ribonucleic acids (RNAs). Modeling a gene network can be employed in various fields, such as the discovery of new drugs, reducing the side effects of treatment methods, further identifying genetic diseases and treatments for genetic disorders by influencing the activity of effectual genes, preventing the growth of unwanted tissues via growth weakening and cell reproduction, and also for many other applications in the fields of medicine and agriculture. The main purpose of this study was to design a suitable algorithm based on context-sensitive hidden Markov models (csHMMs) for the alignment of secondary structures of RNAs, which can identify noncoding RNAs. In this model, several RNA families are compared, and their existing similarities are measured. An expectation-maximization algorithm is used to estimate the model's parameters. This algorithm is the standard algorithm to maximize HMM parameters. The alignment results for RNAs belonging to the hepatitis delta virus family showed an accuracy of 83.33%, a specificity of 89%, and a sensitivity of 97%, and RNAs belonging to the purine family showed an accuracy of 65%, a specificity of 76%, and a sensitivity of 76%. The results show that csHMMs, in addition to aligning the primary sequences of RNAs, would align the secondary structures of RNAs with high accuracy.


Keywords


Context-sensitive hidden Markov models, expectation-maximization algorithm, noncoding ribonucleic acids, structural alignment

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