Noninvasive Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Mobile Blood Glucose and Bilirubin Monitoring

Bahare Javid, Faranak FotouhiGhazvini, Fahime Sadat Zakeri

DOI: 10.4103/jmss.JMSS_8_18

Abstract


Background: People with diabetes need to monitor their blood sugar levels constantly and attend health centers regularly for checkups. The aim of this study is to provide a healthcare system for mobile blood glucose and bilirubin monitoring. Methods: It includes a sensor for noninvasive blood glucose and bilirubin measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy and optical method, respectively, communicating with a smartphone. Results: It was observed that by increasing the glucose concentration, the output voltage of the sensor increases in transmittance mode and decreases in reflectance mode. Moreover, it was observed that by increasing the bilirubin concentration, the output voltage of sensor decreases in transmittance mode and increases in reflectance mode. In the collected data there was good correlations between voltage and concentration and their relationship were approximately linear. Therefore, it is possible to use noninvasive methods to predict the glucose or bilirubin concentration. In vivo experiments for glucose were carried out with 19 persons in training phase, and fve persons were used for testing the model. The glucose behavior model was built into the mobile application. The average glucose concentrations from the transmittance and reflectance mode were obtained. The average percentage error was 8.27 and root mean square error was 18.52 mg/dL. Conclusions: From this research, it can be inferred that the noninvasive optical methods implemented on wireless sensors and smartphones could form a system that can be used at any time and any place in the future as an alternative to traditional invasive blood glucose and bilirubin measurement methods.

Keywords


Android apps; diabetes; mobile medical care; near-infrared spectroscopy; noninvasive blood bilirubin monitoring; noninvasive blood glucose monitoring; optical methods; telemedicine; wireless sensors

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